Thursday, May 14, 2020

Public company - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3296 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION A company is a group of persons associated together for the attainment of a common end, social or economic. Or we can say a company is an association of individuals formed for some common purpose. The company incorporated under the section 3 (1)(i) of the Companies Act 1956 or some earlier company Acts. Companies incorporated under the companies Act 1956 are mostly business companies but they may also be formed for promoting art, research, charity, commerce, or any other useful purpose. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Public company" essay for you Create order A company, formed and registered under the Company Act, is regarded by law as a single person, having specified rights and obligations. The law confers on a company a distinct legal personality, with perpetual succession and a common seal. OBJECTIVE OF THE TERM PAPER The objective of the company formation is To know, grasp the application of the corporate business law. To know about the essential step to company formation To know what are the essential documents regarding to the company formation. To know about the legal formalities that is required for the formation of company. FORMATION OF PUBLIC STEEL INDUSTRY STEP 1- SELECTION OF THE TYPES OF THE COMPANY:- We are forming PUBLIC COMPANY, section 3(1) (iv) of the companies Act 1956. We establish a steel industry. It is basically the manufacturing industry of steel. STEP 2-SELECTION OF NAME FOR THE PROPOSED COMPANY:- For the selection of name for the company following measures are taken by my team members:- CIRCULARS:- GENERAL CIRCULARS which are issued by the GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, MINISTRY OF FINANCIAL AND CORPORATE AFFAIRS. It is send or issued to all the registrars of the company and it is also issued to the regional and board of directors of the company. We have kept in all the parameters regarding the formation and naming of the steel company in steel sector. For example, we have kept in mind what all things and legal aspects are important for the formation of company and what all are its requirements. ACTS AND BILLS:- After we had finished up with the circulars and other legal formalities under company bill we then move to billing part. Under this various clauses are involved such as:- Short title Commencement and application Memorandum Articles of association Companys register charges Removal of board of director MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION THE COMPANY ACT, 1956 MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION OF GANDHI TELECOM LTD Contents of Memorandum: The memorandum of association of every company must contain the following clauses given below:- Name clause- The name of the company is mentioned in the name clause. A public limited company must end with the word Limited Name of company:- Gandhi Telecom ltd. Gupta Telecom ltd. Prashant Telecom ltd. Sham Telecom ltd. Dines Telecom ltd. Gupta telecom name is already registered Prashant is not suitable for the company Sham and Dines not agreed by the members. So we decided the name GANDHI TELECOM LTD Registered Office clause- 176, urban estate, Industry area, Phagwara, pin code: 144401 Object clause- This clause is the most important clause of the company. It specifies the activities which a company can carry on and which activities it cannot carry on. The company cannot carry on any activity which is not authorized by its MOA. This clause must specify:- To provide communication service as like local calls, S.T.D calls, local and National SMS across India and I.S.D calls. To provide value added service. To provide internet services. To provide broadband services. TO increase the market share. To provide the wider range network. OBJECTS OTHER OF THE MAIN OBJECT ARE: To enter into arrangement for sharing profit, union of interest, cooperation or joint venture with any person firm or company. To appoint to deal with or to act as agents, sub agents, dealers, sub-dealers, Distributors for selling or purchasing or dealing with the product s or services related to the business of the company. To do all such acts and things as may be necessary to carry out business of the Company. Liability clause:- The word company in this memorandum when company applied otherwise then to this company shall whenever the context so required or admits be deemed to include any authority, partnership or other body of person whether domiciled in India or elsewhere. The liability of the member is limited by share. The authorized share capital of company is Rs. 50, 00,00000 Submission of document of the Company: For the registration of the company, it is essential to ascertain from the Registrar Of Companies if the proposed name of the company is approved. Then the following documents duly stamped together with the necessary fees are to be filled with the Registrar. Memorandum of association, prepared according to the company act 1956, and signed by at least 7 persons in the case of public company. And duly signed by subscribers. The Articles of association, the public ltd company is limited by guarantee and private companies are limited by shares. The agreement, if any, which the company proposes to enter into with any individual for appointment as its managing or whole time director or manager [sec. 33(1)]. The list of the directors who have agreed to become the first directors of the company and their written consent to act as director and take up qualification shares. A declaration by any of the following persons, an advocate, an attorney or a pleader, a chartered accountant , or a person named in the articles as director, manager, or secretary of the company. The registration fees of a company are fixed on the graduated scale on the amount of nominal capital or the number of members. There is also a filing fee per document. If the Registrar is satisfied that all the required documents of the act have been compiled with, he will register the company and issue a certificate called the Certificate of Incorporation. FORM NO. 1 Registration No. of Company 14456. Nominal Capita: Rs50crore . THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 Declaration of compliance with the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956 on application for registration of a company [Pursuant to section 33(2)] Name of Company GANDHI TELECOM LTD Limited/Private Limited Presented by Sham sunder Gandhi I, ., of do solemnly and sincerely Declare that I am [1] major who is engaged in the formation of the company, or a person Named in the articles as a director/manager/secretary of the Limited/Private Limited. And that all the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956, and the rules thereunder in respect of matters precedent to the registration of the said company and incidental thereto have been complied with. And make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true. Date 25-11-2009 Sham sunder Place phagwara Signature Witness Rajesh Sham Sunder Designation 1. An advocate of the Supreme Court of the NOA . High Court, an attorney or a pleader entitled to appear before the ..NOA. High Court or a chartered accountant practicing in India. 2. State whether director, manager / secretary /advocate/ chartered account. FORM NO. 18 Registration No. of the Company 14456 Nominal Capital: Rs50crore THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 Notice of the situation/change of situation of registered office [pursuant to section 146] Name of the company GANDHI TELECOM LTD Notice is hereby given that - (a) the registered office of the company is situated .with effect from 22-11-2009 [date] (b) the situation of the registered office of the company of was changed from NOA to with effect form . [date] Situation of registered office falls under the jurisdiction of (name of the police station).* Dated this Day of 19 Sham sunder Signature SHAM SUNDER GANDHI Name (In Block Capitals) Sham Sunder Designation . FORM NO 29 Registration No. of Company ..14456 Nominal Capital Rs. 50crore. THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 Consent to act as director of a company and/or undertaking to take and pay for qualification shares [pursuant to section 264(2)/266(I)(a) and 266(1)(b)(iii)] Name of company .GANDHI TELECOM Limited Presented by ..SHAM SUNDER. To the Registrar of Companies NOA. . I, the undersigned, hereby testify my consent to act as director of the .. limited, .. pursuant to section 264(2)/266(1)(a) of the Companies Act, 1956 and certify that I have not been disqualified to act as a director under sections 267 and/or 274 of the Companies Act, 1956. I, the undersigned having consented to act as director of the Limited, also hereby undertake to take from the said company and pay for .. shares of Rs. .. each, being the number/value of the shares prescribed as the qualification shares for the office of director of the said company. Name and surname in full and fathers names Address Occupation Date of birth Nationality Signature 1 2 3 4 5 6 Vijay Kumar Mehli gate, Phagwara Business 15-4-1984 INDIAN Vijay Signature: SHAM SUNDER.. Designation .Sham Sunder.. Dated the day of .. 19 Notes: (1) Delete the portion not applicable. (2) If a director signs through his agent authorised in writing, the authority must be produced before the Registrar. (3) In case of undertaking to take and pay for qualification shares, the from should be accompanied by the necessary stamp duty. FORM NO. 32 Registration No. of Company 14456. Nominal Capital Rs. 50CRORE THE COMPANIES ACT, 1956 Particulars of appointment of directors and manager and changes among them [Pursuant to section 303(2)] Name of Company .GANDHI TELECOM LTD Presented by SHAM SUNDER Note: If a company has no particulars to be included in one or two of the headings A B and C the parts containing those headings (in respect of which the company has no particulars to be included) need not be filed. A. Appointment of and changes among directors. Name or names and surname in full Fathers/ husbands name Usual residential address Nationality Date of appointment or change Brief particulars of changes 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. vijay kumar Madan Baanga Mehli Gate Phagwara INDIAN 10-4-2009 NO Notes: (1) A note of changes should be made in column 6 e.g. by inserting against the name of new director, etc. the words in place of and by indicating against the name of the former director, the cause for the change, e.g. by death, resignation, retirement by rotation, disqualification etc. (2) In case of managing director, his designation should be stated with his name in columan1. B. [***] C. Appointment of and changes in manager ship and secretary ship. Name or names and surname in full Fathers/ husbands name Usual residential address Nationality Date of appointment or change Brief particulars of changes 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rajesh Kumar Pardeep kumar jalandhar INDIAN 10-4-2009 NO Dated the day of ..19 Signature .SHAM SUNDER. DesignationSham Sunder.. Notes: (1) For the purposes of this form, particulars of a person appointed as manager within the meaning of section 2(24) of the Companies Act, 1956 need be given. (2) A note of change as also the cause of change e.g. by death, resignation, removal, disqualification, etc. should be stated in column 6. Article of Association The Gandhi telecom Limited contains following rules and regulations and also bye-laws for the internal management of the affairs of a company. The articles are next in importance to the Memorandum of Association which contains the fundamental conditions upon which alone a company is allowed to be incorporated. They are as such subordinate to, and controlled by, the Memorandum. Contents of Articles Share capital The Share capital of the company is Rs. 50, 00, 00,000 (Rupees fifty crore only). They have been divided into 10 crore Equity shares of Rs.100 each (Twenty rupees only), with the provision of the company Act, 1956 Capital of the company The capital of the company may increase from time to time, by the creations of the new shares. This increase in the amount is to be divided among all the shares holders. Reduction of capital The Company may subject from time to time by special promise will reduce its capital or Share Premium Account in any manner for the time being authorized by law and capital may be paid off in the future. Share and certificate The share certificates will be issued free of cost to all the shareholders of the company. The shares in the capital shall be numbered progressively according to their value. Any share forming part of any increased capital of the company shall be under the control of the Directors who may issue and allot or otherwise dispose of the same or any one of them to such persons n such proposition and on such terms and conditions. Acceptance of shares Any application signed by or on the applicant for shares in the company followed by an allotment of any share there in shall be an acceptance of shares within the meaning of these Articles. Renewal of Share Certificate No fee shall be charged for the issue of new shares certificates in the replacement of the old ones. Calls on shares Company may from time to time, subject the terms on which any shares may have been issued and subject to the conditions o allotment which is passed at a meeting of the Board. Share warrant The company may issue share warrants subject to and in accordance with the provisions of sections 114and 115. The Board may in its discretion with respect to any share which is fully paid up on applications in writing signed by the persons registered as holder of the shares. Transfers of shares The transfer of shares from one person to the other person will be made but with the information of the company. This change will be also made in the companys shareholders Catalogue. Forfeiture of the shares The shares of any shareholder can be cancelled if he or she is not able to pay the payment. The forfeiture of a share shall involve extinction, at the time of the forfeiture, of all claims and demands against to the Company in respect of the share and all other rights incidental to the share, except only such of those right as by these Articles are expressly saved. Surrender of shares The Directors may subject to the provisions of the Act, accept a surrender of any from or by any member desirous of surrendering them on such terms as they think fit. Lien on shares The company shall have a first lien upon all the shares, not being fully paid up shares registered in the name of each member and upon the proceeds of the sale thereof for all money called or payable at a fixed time in respect of such shares and no equitable interest in any share shall be created except upon the footing and condition here of is to have full effect. Winding up At the time of winding up the company is going to liquidate all its assets and the amount from the liquidation of the assets will be distributed to the debentures holders and preference share holders first and then afterwards the rest of the amount to the equity share holders. PROSPECTUS General information: Name : GANDHI TELECOM LIMITED Address: 176, Model Town, Industrial Area, Phagwara. Name of stock exchange: Ludhiana Stock Exchange Jalandhar Stock Exchange Chandigarh Stock Exchange Amritsar Stock Exchange Provision of Sub section (1) of section 68 A of the companies Act, 1956 relating to punishment for fictitious Applications. Statement/ declaration about refund of the issue if minimum subscription 90% is not received within 90 days from closure of the issue. Declaration about the issue of allotment letters/refund with in a period of 10 weeks and interest in case of any delay in refund at the prescribed rate under section 73(2) (2a) Date of opening of the issue: 12-december-2009 Date of closing of the issue: 18-12-2009 Date of earliest closing of the issue: 16-12-2009 Name and address of auditors: Vijay deep, Jalandhar. Capital structure of company Authorized Capital: 50 crore Issued capital: 40 crore Subscribed capital: Paid up Capital: ii. Size of present issue giving separately reservation for preferential allotment to promoters and others. Paid up capital: a. after the present the issue b. after conversion of Debentures Term of the present issue Term of present issue Terms of Payments. Right of the instruments holders How to apply-availability of forms, prospectus and mode of payment Any Special tax benefits of the company and its shareholders. Particulars of the issue: Objects To provide communication service as like local calls, S.T.D calls, local and National SMS across India and I.S.D calls. To provide value added service. To provide internet services. To provide broadband services. TO increase the market share. To provide the wider range network. To provide telecom networks and to run and maintain telecom services like basic/fixed line services, cellular/mobile services, paging, video-text, voice mail data systems, private switching network services, transmission networks of all types, computer networks like local area network, wide area network, Electronic Mail, Intelligent network, Multimedia communication systems or the combinations thereof. To promote establish Companies, Funds, Associations or Partnerships for providing telecom networks and/or to run and maintain telecom services like basic/fixed line services, cellular/mobile services, paging, videotext, voice mail and data systems, private switching network services, transmission network of all types, computer networks i.e. local area network, wide area network, Electronic Mail, Intelligent network. To guarantee/ counter guarantee the obligations of any of its subsidiary/ associate/ group companies and/or other companies in which the company has equity interest under any agreements/ contracts/ debentures, bonds, stocks, mortgages, charges and securities. Project cost Means of financing (including contribution of promoters) Company management and project History and main objects and present business of the company. Promoters and their background Name, addresses and occupation of manager, managing director Location of the project Collaboration, The products Following particulars in regard to the company and other listed companies under the same management within the meaning of section370(IB),which made any capital issue during the last 3 years. Name of the company: Gandhi Telecom limited Year of issue: 2009 Type of issue: Public (Public/Rights/composite) Amount of issue: Date of closure of issue Date of completion of delivery of share/debenture certificates. Date of completion the project Where object of the issue was financing of a project Rate of dividend paid Outstanding litigation pertaining to- Matters likely to affect operation and finances of the company including disputed tax liabilities of any nature; and Criminal prosecution launched against the company and the directors for alleged offences Management perception of risk factors (example: sensitivity to foreign exchange rate fluctuations difficulty in availability of raw material in marketing of product cost/time over run etc. SHRILONG Now therefore in consideration of the mutual covenants set forth herein and intending to be legally bound , the parties here to agree as follows. 1. Terms of agreement : This agreement will be begin [13-11-09] and will end [13-11-2010]. Either party may cancel the agreement in between [15 days] notice to other party in writing by certified personal delivery or by mail. 2.Time needed by them : It is Needed that your company employee will spend approximately [150] hours in these three months contract with the obligation of this contract. In a week a employee must devote minimum of [10] hour by taking care of their personal problems. 3. Place of services : According to the Contract at a location of consultanatss only be considered. The consultant will perform services on seminar halls, auditorium, or any other places as necessary to perform these services according to this agreement. 4. Payment made : We perform services on the rate of Rs 400/hr for work performed in accordance with this agreement extra time will be charged, on services provided. Payment must occurred on first three days of every month. 5. Confidential information : The [Gandhi Telecom ltd] agrees that any information recived during their contract period which concerts to personal, Confidence and will not be revealed to any other persons, firms and organizations. 6. In Witness Where of : The parties here to have excuted this Agreement as of the day and year First above written. REFERENCE TO THE INTERNET

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Ethical Dilemmas Ethical Dilemma - 824 Words

Discuss the ethical dilemmas PMHNPs sometimes find themselves in and name the opposing ethical principles Ethics can be described as the act of doing good or doing what is considered right based on the individual s understanding. Ethical dilemma’s are the conflicts that evolve from the understanding of different course of action or expectations. PMHNPs face ethical dilemmas just like other nurse practitioner specialties. There has to be mutual trusting relationship between the therapist and the patient (Perese, 2012). For example, in psychotherapy, the patient is expected to be honest and reveal personal and family secrets. If informations discussed with the psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioner is heard outside of the room by the patient, this could lead to an ethical dilemma. In other words, protecting patients right is one of the ethical dilemmas that nurses and practitioners face (Ulrich, Taylor, Soeken, O’Donnell, Farrar, Danis, Grady, 2010). Collaboration is a very important aspect of care in the health care system, but exchange of information could cau se a lot of issues. PMHNP is trained to overcome this type of issue and encouraged to get consent from patient regarding need to collaborate with other healthcare professionals for continuation of care (Perese, 2012). A study by Ulrich et al., (2010) showed that there are major ethical issues that healthcare providers come accross; informed consent, advanced care plan, surrogate decision making,Show MoreRelatedEthical Dilemmas Of The Workplace1538 Words   |  7 Pages1. Discuss an ethical dilemma that you have had to face in the workplace. Ethical dilemmas often occur when a manager or an employee is faced with two or more conflicting choices. Give as many facts and details as possible in describing your dilemma. The most difficult ethical dilemma I have dealt with was a summer job I had this past summer, while I was working for a bakery in my hometown. This past particular summer really tested what I believe is right and wrong and how to speak up. One of myRead MoreEthical Dilemmas Of The Workplace1291 Words   |  6 PagesEthical Dilemmas in the Workplace As a manager, you are the role model for staff. You set the standards, adhere to guidelines, and exemplify what you expect staff to model. By doing so, you are establishing and sustaining an organizational culture of ethics and integrity, which is the backbone of all successful endeavors. However, even the best structured organizations face ethical dilemmas in the workplace. It is how management recognizes and addresses these occurrences that will either set themRead MoreEthical Dilemma Assignment1766 Words   |  8 PagesCONSENT FORM Thank you for being willing to take part in this interview exploring ethical conflict or turbulence. 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As part of an effort to hire younger workers, a multinational organization assures applicants that they will get to visit its offices in other countries and work with the employees there. However, only two out of every nine workers actually get selected for such projects. What moral dilemma best fitsRead MoreThe Ethical Dilemmas of Collecting Data and the Consequential Revision of Commodities, Culture and the Politics of Representations Definitions 1751 Words   |  7 Pagesinformation or data has become assets to companies, being regarded as property to be bought and sold to between companies. However, this has put forward the following primary ethical dilemmas surrounding human rights: the right to informed consent and the right to personal data. In addition to the creation of ethical dilemmas, the collection of human data has brought about a need for a revision of definitions. Commodities are known as a raw material or primary agricultural product that can be boughtRead More Will the Real Lupe Garza Please Stand Up? Essay1216 Words   |  5 PagesAn ethical dilemma is defined as a moral issue, where a situation has two equivalent undesirable alternatives and neither choice will resolve the ethical predicament. Lupe Garza, mother of two children, is a temporary employee at a plant. Garza is an excellent and talented worker, and supervisors have taken notice in her skills. A human resource specialist named Sara Jones, mislead Garza in thinking she would unquestionably obtain a permanent job position at the plant, causing Garza to turn downRead MoreThe Ethical Principles Of Respect For Autonomy984 Words   |  4 Pagesthe nurse to administer blood despite Mark’s refusal. This situation presents an ethical dilemma to the health professionals involved in Mark’s care. The ethical dilemma is whether to uphold his decision not to receive the blood and therefore risk his life or give him the blood to save his life despite knowing his religious status and beliefs. There are several ethical principles involved in this scenario. The ethical principles of respect for Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-maleficence, Veracity and FidelityRead MoreDuty to Warn Essays1522 Words   |  7 PagesDuty t o Warn Jessica Hall PSYCH/545 09/4/2011 Dr. P. Duty to Warn The ethical dilemma I wish to explore is The Duty to Warn. This refers to the duty of a counselor, therapist to breach one of the most important bonds between a client and a therapist; the law of confidentiality. The therapist has the right to break confidentiality without the fear of being brought up for legal action. If the therapist believes that the client poses a danger, or is a threat to himself, someone else, or society

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Andrew Jackson Essay Example For Students

Andrew Jackson Essay Guardians of Freedom?The first and truest ideals of democracy were embodied in the politicalideas of Andrew Jackson and the Jacksonian democrats. Calling themselves theguardians of the United States Constitution, the Jacksonian politicians engenderedwide spread liberty under a government which represented all men, rather than onlythe upper class. While some policies under the democrats had evident flaws, theywere, for the most part, eager social reformers who strived to put the power ofgovernment into the hands of the common citizens. The convictions and ideals of the Jacksonian Democrats can be bestillustrated through a passage written by George Henry Evans. Evans was an editorwith strong democratic principles who created ?The Working Mens Declaration ofIndependence? (Doc. A). Within the declaration, Evans stresses the importance ofestablishing democracy. He uses words and phrases from Jeffersons ?Declarationof Independence? to clarify his points and stress his convictions. Stating theabsolute ?necessity of the organization of the party,? Evans explains that it will bepossible to prevent the upper class from subverting the ?indefeasible andfundamental privilege? of liberty. And finally, Evans states that it is the commoncitizens right to use every constitutional means necessary to ?reform the abuses?and ?provide new guards for future security.? In doing so, he documented thecharacteristic attitude of the majority of the country in the 1820s and 1830s. Evans was only one of the many Jacksonian democrats to contribute to thesuccess of the party and to the reforms that they made. Chief Justice Roger B. Taneys opinion in the Supreme Court Case of Charles River Bridge v. WarrenBridge was a capitalist decision which was a typical response for a Jacksoniandemocrat (Doc. H). This decision stated that while the Charter of 1785 allowed theCharles River Bridge to be constructed, it did not prohibit any other bridges frombeing constructed. Therefore, Taney decided that the capitalistic competitionwould be healthy for the economy of the regions along the Charles River. In doingthis, Taney was eliminating the monopolies of the elite and creating equaleconomic opportunities for all citizens. As a result, Taney contributed to one of themajor achievements of the Jacksonian Democrats to create economic equality. The President of the United States of America and leader of the Democraticparty, Andrew Jackson, was perhaps the most outspoken democrat of the time. Heused his position as leader of the country to give more power to the common man. Even before his election as president, he succeeded in having the property qualification eliminated, therefore, increasing the voting population tremendously. Jackson became the first president truly elected by the common man, rather thanonly high society. For the first time in the history of the nation, the middle classreceived the opportunity to participate in the government that ruled them. Jackson did not stop with the reformation of the election process. Instead,he attacked the Bank of the United States and vetoed the re-charter for theinstitution. President Jackson explained that the banks stock was held by onlyforeigners and a few hundred rich American citizens. As a result, the bankmaintained an ?exclusive privilege of banking? ?a monopoly? (Doc. B). TheDemocrats believed the bank to be a tool of rich oppression and a dangerousinstitution because the men in power were of the highest class and utterly?irresponsible to the people.? So, President Jackson vetoed the re-charter and itwas closed. The money was dispersed into several state banks and the monopolywas disintegrated. Indeed, the Democrats succeeded in creating a new government for the ruleof a society of middle class citizens. And, the middle class began to prosper underthe struggle for economic equality. Visiting the United States in 1834, HarrietMartineau reported the prosperity of the country (Doc. D). She discovered ?theabsence of poverty, gross ignorance, and insolence of manner? as well as townswith newspapers and libraries. She also reported on political debated withcommon citizens as judges. It is quite clear that the expansion of suffrage, supportfor individual rights, and advances of democratic society were responsible for theprosperity of the time. .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .postImageUrl , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:hover , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:visited , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:active { border:0!important; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:active , .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80 .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc3888ba024ba775f4109d50835baec80:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Parkensons desease EssayHowever, it would be both irrational and naive to assume that the ideals ofJacksonian democrats were without flaw. And it would be preposterous toconceive a period in American history without its low points. This holds true forthe period of 1820 1830 as well. A number of middle class citizensmisinterpreted democratic reforms as an opportunity to disregard decorum andlaw. Philip Hone, a Whig politician, wrote descriptions of riots which erupted inPhiladelphia and large Eastern cities (Doc. E). Middle class citizens who tookadvantage of individual rights caused chaos and destruction. Yet, an understandingof human nature is necessary to continue. It m ust be expected that some people areunable to handle the privileges of individualism, and a crowded city is the mostlikely place for a riot to break out. Such is the situation even presently. Especiallyin large cities, violence and rioting is not uncommon. A political party aimed atbetter the nation can not be justly held responsible for the terrible behavior of afew. The same principle holds true for the Acts and Resolutions of SouthCarolina in 1835 (Doc. F). While the Jacksonian Democrats believed that the onlyway to reform society was through constitutional means, South Carolina did notabide by the same convictions. Instead, they used individual liberty to over-rule thegovernment. The South Carolina legislature decided to nullify the Post OfficeDepartment (which violated the first amendment to the Constitution) and outlawabolition movements (thereby denying freedom of speech). Finally, thesoon-to-secceed South Carolina decided not to collect taxes on imports andPresident Jackson decided they had gone too far. He threatened them with war inorder to restore rational behavior. Although is possible to show all the positive and constructive reformsinitiated by the Jacksonian Democrats, it is impossible to ignore the tragicoppression of the Native Americans by President Jackson. On the Trail of Tears,thousands of lives were senselessly ended en route from Georgia to the westernreservations. There can be no justification for the terrible mistreatment the Indianshad to endure. However, it is necessary to look at the situation for that time period. While all white man were now considered equal and the middle class was elevated,the Blacks and Native Americans were not included. Even Thomas Jefferson didnot intend to include either race when drafting the Declaration of Independence. So, while it can not be excused, it becomes possible to comprehend how such atravesty might occur. Despite several inevitable flaws in the time period, the Democratsproclamation as ?guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy,individual liberty, and economic equality? is quite valid. Indeed, the JacksonianDemocrats succeed in the ambitions, and their avid social reforms helped make theUnited States a more liberated and democratic nation.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Criminal Identification Procedures

One of the forces driving change in the provision of security services is technology. In the recent years, the practices of forensic science, criminology, and security management have become reliant on technology.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Criminal Identification Procedures specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the interesting applications of technology to crime prevention is the use of cameras. Currently, many cities rate their security preparedness by the number of CCTV cameras installed in their jurisdiction (Holmes, 2005). This paper examines the merits of CCTV surveillance, its impact on constitutional rights, and its effects on crime control. Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV Cameras CCTV technology is an improvement of the use of video cameras for surveillance. Their use dates back to several decades ago. Their significance to crime prevention comes from their increasing use throughout the world . After 9/11, many public safety authorities decided to install CCTV cameras for public surveillance. Prior to that, the cameras had been mainly used to secure high security installations and not for general public surveillance (Robb, 1980). The main advantages of the cameras are as follows. CCTV cameras keep a record of events that, at times, prove critical to the resolution of crime (Holmes, 2005). The fact that the events captured by the CCTV cameras can act as evidence makes them very useful in the criminal justice system. Second, CCTV cameras can provide full time surveillance without the need for breaks or rest, as compared to human agents. In addition, the cameras will maintain focus on an area of interest for as long as the services are required. The third advantage of CCTV cameras is that they make it possible to keep a record of events which can later be analyzed for trends. However, the cameras have significant disadvantages. First, it is impossible to keep track of all t he CCTV footage collected in a given period (Robb, 1980). A review of CCTV footage only happens when there is an issue of interest. For instance, local police are likely to review the footage after the occurrence of a crime to find out what happened. Second, CCTV cameras usually have a limited range of coverage. This means that for the effective coverage of a large area, very many cameras must be installed. This increases the management costs, which may not be justifiable.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third disadvantage of CCTV cameras is that they cannot detect crime. They are a passive element of the security system and require a human analyst for effectiveness (Holmes, 2005). The fourth disadvantage associated with CCTV cameras is that they often lack sound recording devices. This becomes very important in cases where the cameras record a meeting that is of interest to la w enforcement agencies. In such a case, the cameras can only prove that the people captured met. Effects CCTV Cameras on Constitutional Rights The three main concerns relating to the continued use of CCTV cameras are as follows. First, there is a concern that CCTV usage impinges against the fourth amendment rights that shield US citizens from â€Å"unreasonable searches and seizures† (Robb, 1980, p. 1). CCTV footage allows law enforcement officers to collect data on the activities of various individuals in areas with CCTV surveillance. This can qualify as unreasonable search. In this regard, the use of the footage captured by CCTV can violate individual rights. Second, the use of CCTV cameras impinges on individual privacy rights (Zalman, 2011). The basic motivation behind the installation of CCTV footage is to deter crime. This necessitates the installation of the cameras in places where a crime is likely to occur. The result is that the cameras must be installed in the plac es where they affect the privacy of law-abiding citizens because criminals look for secluded places to carry out crimes. The third constitutional impact of CCTV cameras is that they may limit the enjoyment of the freedom of speech and association (Zalman, 2011). In places where the cameras have sound recording capabilities, they can be a barrier affecting the free interaction of people. In this case, private conversations with friends and associates can end up in the hands of law enforcement agencies. Effects of CCTV Cameras on the Efficiency of the Criminal Justice System The main effect of CCTV cameras on the efficiency of the criminal justice system is that they have a deterrent effect on crime (Robb, 1980). Criminals tend to avoid places with CCTV cameras because of the risk of identification by law enforcement agents. In the case of organized crime, CCTV cameras increase the planning requirements. Criminals must find the ways of hiding their identities in case a CCTV camera rec ords their activities. The second impact of CCTV cameras on crime control is that they increase the confidence of the public in the security efforts put in place by the security agencies. Increased confidence by the public results in fewer opportunities for criminals to commit crimes. The overall effect is that the presence of CCTV cameras increases the sense of security in a given place. The third impact of CCTV cameras on crime control is that they make the identification of criminals easy. This makes it simple to process criminals through the criminal justice system. Successful prosecution of criminals also acts as a deterrent for further activities by other criminals. This means that the presence of CCTV cameras makes it easier to manage crime in populated areas.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Criminal Identification Procedures specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Summary of Findings The key findings associated with the use of CCTV cameras are as follows. First, the use of CCTV cameras impinges on some of the constitutional rights of the citizens of the United States. This situation arises from the conflict between allowing people to enjoy all their constitutional rights and the need to keep track of criminals in various communities. Second, there are clear advantages of the use of CCTV cameras. Their presence acts as deterrence to criminal activity. They also provide a reliable record of events and can be a very important source of evidence in a criminal case. Third, CCTV cameras can increase the chances of successful conviction of criminals, which in turn discourages further crime. Recommendations The main recommendations arising from the discussions above are as follows. First, the use of CCTV cameras for surveillance must continue. The absence of these cameras can lead to serious deterioration of national security. Their role in deterring crime and in supporting cases makes them an in dispensable part of the criminal justice system. Second, there need to be national laws put in place and reviewed often in light of the changing security environment. This comes from the realization that it is very easy for law enforcement agencies to overstep their mandate when it comes to the use of CCTV cameras. A national law should determine the persons allowed to access the CCTV footage collected by law enforcement agencies and the footage filmed by private firms. In addition, the law should prescribe lawful uses of CCTV footage. If the surveillance targets a particular person or group, law enforcement agents should get a warrant similar to search warrants needed to search private property. References Holmes, D. (2005). Communication Theory: Media, Technology, and Society. London, UK: SAGE. Robb, C. G. (1980). Police Use of CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) Surveillance Constitutional Implications and Proposed Regulations. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 13(3), 57 1-602.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Zalman, M. (2011). Criminal Procedure: Constitution and Society. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall. This essay on Criminal Identification Procedures was written and submitted by user Abrielle Anthony to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

How to Write a Narrative Essay on Arranged Marriages in India

How to Write a Narrative Essay on Arranged Marriages in India Writing a narrative essay fulfills one of the three main forms of writing tasks you will encounter during your academic career. The narrative is an opportunity for you to write a story about your personal life inside of which you draw a connection to the themes you are reviewing in the classroom. When reviewing the item of arranged marriages in India, it is incumbent upon you to search carefully for a topic from your personal life, a story or experience, that you can relate to the themes which are embodied in this cultural tradition. Being a young student likely means you have never been forced into marriage yourself, but perhaps you have been involved in a marriage, or seen a marriage personally fall apart when the two people involved are not in love. While arranged marriages may not be as prevalent across western countries today, there are still social stigmas for those who have children out of wedlock to marry, something which you might relate strongly to the themes presented in y our classroom study. Review Themes For narrative pieces, you are challenged to look deeply into the text or texts you are studying, to review the multiple themes you might find within a book or story and to relate those to your personal experiences. Take some time to reflect upon the emotional struggles, social statuses, or economic problems that a family might face in such a situation as an arranged marriage, or review the personal struggle one might have to please one’s family and uphold traditions versus seeking personal happiness. You can find a story in your personal life where you were also conflicted with regard to doing what makes you happy and meeting with the expectations of your family. This is the type of story which will show to your teacher a greater understanding of the themes presented in your classroom readings. If you can’t formulate a clear topic, look through the suggested ones. They will certainly give you some idea. Use Personal Stories This type of writing is one which requires no research or references. You do not have to sit in the library for hours poring over books. You are, instead, asked to explore your creative writing talents, to bring to life a story or event from your personal life as the evidence you are using to explore a specific theme or topic. For the exploration of arranged marriages in India, you might pick the aforementioned theme of pleasing your family and present to the reader the argument that meeting family expectations means forgoing personal happiness, or that it brings a new form of personal happiness. From there you would, instead of showing a quote from an expert or a statistic as your evidence, show your personal story as the supporting detail. Working with Prompts In some cases your teacher will provide you with a prompt. They might ask you to describe a time when you overcame a personal challenge, or when you learned a hard life lesson, or when you experienced some form of discrimination. You might be asked to write a story about how your personality was changed from a single experience. If you are given a prompt like this, your goal is still the same; you want to show your point with a story from your personal life, but one which also conforms to the prompt pertaining to your reading. If you are not given such prompts, use our facts on arranged marriages in India. They will give you the information you lack. Visit our professional essay writing company  from which you can order a custom written narrative paper on any topic!

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease - Essay Example The superficial layer of the esophagus is known as adventitia. The adventitia attaches the esophagus to surrounding structures. The esophagus secretes mucus and transports food into the stomach but it does not produce digestive enzymes. The stomach contents can reflux (back up) into the inferior portion of the esophagus when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to close adequately after food has entered the stomach; the condition which is known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In GERD, the basal layer of of the epithelium is is thickened, and the papillae of the lamina propria are elongated and extend toward the surface. Abnormalities of the lower esophageal sphincter, Hiatus hernia, Delayed esophageal clearance, Gastric contents, Defective gastric emptying, Increased intra-abdominal pressure, and Dietary and environmental factors may be the factors involved in GERD. Clinically, GERD may be diagnosed by radiographic examinations using dyes, endoscopy, and esophageal pH-metr y. PPI trial is also an accepted method of first line diagnostic test. Treatment involves both non-pharmacological treatment measures as well as pharmacotherapy. Non-pharmacological treatment include avoidance of foods and medications that exacerbate GERD, smoking secession, weight reduction, taking a small meal at a time, avoidance of alcohol and elevation of the head of the bed. Drugs for treating GERD include H2 receptor antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine or nizatidine. Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole and rebeprazole are found to be very effective to reduce acid reflux and hence inflammation. H2 blockers were found to heal ulcers and erosions but the typical reflux changes of the squamous epithelium of the esophageal mucosa are not recovered. Studies confirmed that PPIs not only heal ulcers and erosions but also cures basal cell hyperplasia and elongation of the papillae. The percentage of normal epithelium were also reported to increase significantly after PPI administration in patients with GERD. Two commonly employed treatment alternatives for GERD are antirefluctive surgery and Endoscopic Treatments. Surgery is preferred only when the patient fails to respond to pharmacological treatment, when the patient prefers surgery, in those patients who have complications of GERD like barrett's esophagitis, or if the patient has atypical symptoms and reflux documented on 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed that open fundoplication and medical treatment have similar long-term effects for GERD. Laparoscopic antireflux surgery is also reported to have similar outcomes to the open procedures. Endoscopic Treatments for GERD include plicating gastric folds methods (Endoscopic Gastroplication, ELGP method, thermal tissue remodeling /neurolysis method, and bulking injection method. These endoluminal treatments augment the reflux barrier. Section I: Organ system structure and Function. Explain the accepted normal healthy structure of parts and function of organ system; How it works The esophagus is a collapsible muscular tube, about 25 cm (10 in.) long that lies posterior to the trachea. The esophagus begins at the inferior end of the laryngopharynx and passes through the mediastinum anterior to vertebral column. Then it pierces the diaphragm through an opening called the